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Since humans first began to understand how fire hardened clay, we have been making ceramics, both in pits and in wood kilns. Now, with so many fuel options available to the potter, wood-fired kilns are more of a choice than a necessity. While wood firing isn’t easy, the results are incomparable. The work in wood kilns reveals the story of the firing, with pieces showing ash deposits and the path of the flame through the kiln. But not all wood kilns are built alike. Some are made for flashing from the flame, some are made for melted rivulets of ash and others still are designed to bury the ware in ash and make it crusty and craggy. Regardless of your wood-firing aesthetic, the wood kiln plans and diagrams in this helpful guide will show you several ways to get started understanding and building wood kilns.

 

Here’s an example of what you’ll find inside Wood Kiln Firing Techniques & Tips: Plans and Instructions for Making a Wood-fired Kiln and Firing with Wood:

 

Wood Firing Basics
by Lowell Baker

 

Wood burns in two distinctly different stages. The first, and most obvious, is the burning of gasses produced when wood is heated. Wood begins to gasify at about 500°F. The second is the burning of the charcoal. This happens, for the most part, after the materials that form the gasses have been driven out of the wood. The coals in your ash pit serve to provide some heat to the kiln and to gasify the freshly stoked wood, mostly through radiant heat energy. As the gasses burn in a wood kiln, they typically produce very long flames. These flames can be easily over 30 feet long. Charcoal produces very hot, but very short, flames. The fl from charcoal is normally less than a few inches long.

 

All of these issues are relevant to building and firing any wood-burning kiln.One of the demonstrations I take my students through when we begin talking about kiln design is to bring an oxygen-acetylene torch into the classroom. If the torch is ignited with only acetylene (fuel), it produces a very long, very dirty fl.

 

One can quickly pass his or her hand through this fl without any real danger, but it will be covered with black soot. As oxygen is added, the fl shortens and becomes significantly hotter. As the flame shortens with the changing oxygen-fuel ratio, smaller flame tips appear in the center of the flame. This is the place where the flame is the hottest.

 

The more defined the tips are, the hotter the flame. You want this part of the flame in the firing chamber of a kiln, not in the firebox or the flue. If you have a small kiln and a fuel that develops a long flame, you need to either redesign your kiln to use the length of the flame, or simply shorten the flame to bring the hottest part of the fire back into the chamber where the pots are stacked.

 

As with the acetylene example, the easiest way to shorten the flame and make it hotter is to add oxygen. If you have electricity at the kiln site, adding a blower is one of the easiest and most controllable ways of adding oxygen. A small squirrel-cage fan that will deliver about 100 cubic feet of air per minute will supply all the air you will need to fire a small kiln. You can fabricate a bolt-on connector to attach the pipe to the blower, or duct tape a piece of automotive tail pipe to the blower.

 

You should realize that the end of the metal pipe will be subjected to a great deal of heat and will have to be replaced after a number of firings. Place the pipe in the ash pit of your firebox and adjust the air-input damper to the desired air flow. You will find that the flame around the blow pipe will be very intense. This system will allow you to fire your kiln with a much smaller firebox than would normally be needed in a natural-draft kiln.

 

The smaller firebox will require more frequent stoking, simply because it will not hold as much fuel as a larger box. Increasing the flue height would be the last choice in a small kiln. If you do this, you must be certain that you have air intake ports and a flue cross section large enough to allow easy circulation of hot gasses.

 

A damper will be essential for control. This will be less responsive than a forced-air system and will vary more due to atmospheric conditions, because it depends on lowered pressure to bring air into the kiln. So, more air shortens the flame and more air increases the temperature of the coal bed to help gasify your fuel more quickly.

 

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Wood Kiln Firing Techniques and Tips: Plans and Instructions for Making a Wood-fired Kiln and Firing with Wood also includes:

   
 

haikaburiHai Kaburi: Creating Consistent Crusty Wood-Fire Results
by Lee Middleman

 

If you want crusty pots in a wood-fired kiln, you almost have to put them in or near the firebox, where they will be exposed to a lot of ash. This kiln design puts the firebox on top of the ware chamber, so the entire kiln load is exposed to ash as if it were in a firebox.

   

 

lowfirewoodLow Firing with Wood
by Richard W. James

For thousands of years all ceramics were fired with wood so there’s no reason to think it’s entirely for high fire work. Richard W. James demonstrates what you can accomplish without the melted ash or dramatic flashing while developing a fresh aesthetic utilizing colored slips blended with the subtle effects of flame.

 

   
 

manabigamaThe Manabigama
by John Theis

 

A cross between an anagama and a groundhog-style kiln, the manabigama is a kiln that’s within everyone’s reach. Small, compact and simple to fire, this kiln can be fired by one person in a matter of hours and not days.

   
 

woodrakuWood-fired Raku Kiln
by Nesrin During

 

Wood firing isn’t just about high firing. You can build a simple raku kiln and fire your work with wood to get stunning results. Nesrin During constructs a simple kiln that’s easy to stoke and attain raku temperatures without a lot of effort.

 

   

 

 

 

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About Ceramic Arts Daily

 

Ceramic Arts Daily is a free online website and newsletter written and produced for the benefit of potters and ceramic artists worldwide. The newsletter features both renowned and emerging artists, their work, techniques and artistic perspectives. Regular features include tips and techniques designed to help every artist expand their skill set and widen their artistic horizons. Ceramic Arts Daily also delivers video tips, in which potters and ceramic artists demonstrate various projects and processes. Think of them as e-workshops!

 

Ceramic Arts Daily is designed to be interactive, inviting your comments and fostering a community in which each person can contribute to the growth of their own and others’ skills. You may be surprised at what you learn!

 

Ceramic artists on Ceramic Arts Daily know what ceramic art is all about – from functional pottery to abstract ceramic sculpture. This is about community. You’ll be drawn in by artists’ stories, inspired by their work and find confidence to try some of their techniques. With Ceramic Arts Daily, you’ll learn a little bit of everything. Then you can choose the techniques you enjoy the most to create something new!

 

So start today by downloading our free Wood Kiln Firing Techniques and Tips: Inspiration and Information for Making a Wood-Fired Kiln and Firing with Wood. Then, get ready for Ceramic Arts Daily to introduce you to new artists and show you new techniques!


4 Comments on "Wood Kiln Firing Techniques and Tips: Plans and Instructions for Making a Wood-fired Kiln and Firing with Wood"

  1. Clifford Wieser March 27, 2013 at 6:13 pm -
    been intrigued for years with ceramics and clay, looking forwartd to the read. thanks
  2. uchechukwu December 23, 2011 at 10:23 am -
    very instructive indeed and alluring..
  3. Lucas November 14, 2011 at 4:53 am -
    Very instructive i like it Thanks
  4. Gérson September 29, 2011 at 6:43 pm -
    Very good, I’am start in Raku, and I find wonderful, I’d like know very much this tecnics Thanks

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